How much Proteins you need ?

 How much Proteins you need ?
Our body needs Proteins as per body weight, age, physical activity level, and other factors.

  • Average adult man needs: 56 grams per day.
  • Adult women need: 46 grams per day.
  • Teenage boys need:  52 grams per day.
  • Infants need: 10 grams per day.

More specific recommendations, based on body weight, call for adults to get  about 8 grams of protein for every 20 pounds of body weight.

 

  • 10% to 35% percentage of your daily calories should come from protein?
  • All other things being equal, men need more protein than women.
  • Studies have shown that diets that substitute protein for carbohydrates may help people lose weight.

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Tea: Few Facts

Tea: Few Facts

Drinking a few cups of tea may be good for your health. Here are few facts on Tea.

  • Tea leaves come from the Camellia sinensis plant. They contain antioxidants that counter free radicals, which can damage cells. Antioxidants may reduce or help prevent some of this damage.
  • The difference between the three main varieties of tea (green, black, and oolong) is the process used to make them. Black tea is exposed to air, or fermented, which darkens the leaves and gives them flavor. Green tea is made by heating or quickly steaming the leaves. Oolong tea leaves are partially fermented.
  • There’s no hard evidence that drinking tea can prevent cancer in people in general; many factors affect cancer risk. However, several studies have linked drinking tea to a lower risk of cancer for some people. More research is needed to define those groups.
  • Some studies show that drinking green tea may help curb a few heart disease risk factors, including body weight, blood pressure, and cholesterol absorption. However, the FDA denied a petition filed by a green tea maker that wanted to put heart-health claims on its product’s label, ruling that there wasn’t credible scientific evidence to support the claims.
  • There is some evidence that green tea may help control glucose (or blood sugar) levels, however, that hasn’t been widely tested in people. More research is needed to learn how much green tea would be needed and whether green tea also helps curb body weight and body fat.
  • Herbal teas are not made from the Camellia sinensis plant and are not really teas at all. Herbal teas are an infusion of leaves, roots, bark, seeds, or flowers from other types of plants. Common herbal teas include chamomile and mint. They are not associated with the potential health benefits of green, black, or oolong tea.
  • You get the most antioxidants from freshly brewed tea; those compounds are reduced in instant tea, decaffeinated tea, and bottled tea. Researchers have not determined how many cups of freshly brewed green tea are recommended each day, but people in Asia typically drink at least three cups daily.
  • Fresh brewing is the way to get the most antioxidants from your tea, so knowing how long to steep the tea is an important part of the process. Three to five minutes is the recommended amount of time for maximizing the benefits.
  • Iced tea often contains low to negligible amounts of catechins compared with the high concentrations found in a cup of hot tea, because adding water to brewed tea dilutes the concentration. However, iced tea and hot tea could contain approximately the same level of antioxidants if, when preparing iced tea, you use 50% more tea than when preparing a similar amount of hot tea to allow for dilution. About 85% of the tea drunk in the U.S. is iced tea.
  • Green tea contains caffeine, so pregnant women or those who are breastfeeding shouldn’t drink more than one or two servings of green tea per day, according to the American Dietetic Association. People with irregular heartbeats or anxiety disorders also should be cautious about how much caffeine they get, from green tea or other sources.
  • A Swiss study found that drinking black tea with a meal reduced iron absorption by 79% to 94% when compared with drinking water. People with an iron deficiency might consider drinking tea only between meals.
                                                                            Contents from:http://www.webmd.com
Tea and its benefits
Green Tea

Smoking

Smoking
Some people commit suicide by drowning, others by consuming poison, and still others by smoking. The only difference being that smoking not only affects the smokers but also people in the surrounding area and environment.
Tobacco smoking related diseases constitute a major health problem all over the world.Most of the disorderslinked with tobacco smoking result in various health related problems.Tobacco smoke contains more than 4000 compounds some of which are active antigenic, cytotoxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic.
A habitual smokers’ life is shortened by about 11 minutes per cigarette smoked. The average loss of life of a smoker who smokes 16 cigarettes per day is about Six and a half year. A pack a day cigarette smoker puffs more than 70,000 times a year and thus exposes the membranes of the mouth, nose, pharynx, wind pipes and pulmonary tree repetitively to tobacco smoke.
The three constituents of tobacco smoke that are thought to pose the greatest risk to health are:

  • Nicotine
  • Carbon monoxide
  • Tar

NICOTINE

Nicotine, a highly toxic substance is readily absorbed from the oral, nasal and respiratory mucosa to reach the brain tissue within 7 seconds of inhalation. A smoker who smokes 20 cigarettes a day inhales 100mg of nicotine a week which in a single dose will kill him as rapidly as a bullet.

The fatal dose of nicotine is 60mg. It is a neuroendocrine stimulant and causes addiction.

CARBON MONOXIDE

A toxic gas that interferes with oxygen transport, carbon monoxide binds with haemoglobin and forms carboxy haemoglobin (C0Hb). Chronic elevated COHB leads to the occurrence of arteriosclerotic disease, coronary insufficiency, polycythaemia and impairment of skill and co-ordination. In smoking mothers it is associated with still birth, spontaneous abortions and low birth weight baby.

TAR

Tar is the aggregate of particulate matter in tobacco smoke after subtracting nicotine and moisture. It is known to cause cancer. The other major identified carcinogens in tobacco smoke are polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, aromatic amines, nitrosamines and catechol. It also contains many potent pulmonary irritants and ciliotoxins.

ADVERSE EFFECTS:Chronic tobacco smoking adversely affects all systems of the body.Heart: Smoking is one of t the three main independent risk factors for coronary heart disease along with hypertension and hypere-cholesterolaemia. Cardiac death rates are 60-70% greater in male smokers than in nonsmokers.Lungs: Chronic smokers show abnormalities of pulmonary function tests. Smoking causes chronic bronchitis and emphysema. It has been associated with an increased incidence of respiratory infections and death from influenza and pneumonia.Cancer: Smoking is the single most important cause of cancer.

  • The risk of lung cancer is 10 times more in men who smoke one pack a day
  • and 25 times more in those who smoke two packs a day as compared to nonsmokers.
  • It also contributes to the development of oral, laryngeal, esophageal, gastric, pancreatic, kidney and bladder cancers.

Ulcers: There is increased incidence of gastric and duodenal ulcers and chronic mouth ulcers in people who smoke.

Stroke: It is a risk factor for development of strokes.

Plasma fats: Tobacco smoking increases the serum concentration of glucose, cortisol, free fatty acids and decreases the ratio of protective high density lipoprotein, to low density lipoprotein which is harmful.

Pregnancy: Smoking in women is associated with delayed conception and increased incidence of ectopic pregnancy. Complications of pregnancy such as Abruptio placentae, IUGR and preterm labour also increase with smoking. It significantly decreases breast milk volume and infant growth rate.

Various forms of smoking are practiced in different parts of India. Among the smoking habits, bidi takes the leading position followed by cigarette, hookah and cigar. Due to the cruder form of tobacco in bidi it has a higher concentration of tar and nicotine and thus is more carcinogenic than cigarette.

Nicotine being addictive, chronic smokers need adequate treatment to quit smoking. Addiction to tobacco is basically addiction to Nicotine. Smokers try to maintain thier blood nicotine levels.Of course, apart from treatment, a great amount of will power and self confidence are also needed.A diet rich in vitamin E foods such as nuts and whole grains can lower the risk of lung cancer among smokers by about 20%.
According to a study: Earlier a person begins to smoke, the more genetic damage they are likely to suffer, increasing their risk for cancer. The findings suggest that adolescents may be handicapping themselves for the rest of their lives in terms of their ability to recover from the damage tobacco can produce.All smokers develop DNA damage, a precursor to cancer, and all smokers who quit show some DNA repair. But smokers who picked up the habit at a very young age, around ages 9 to 12, showed the highest amount of DNA damage.
A study conducted by American Institute of Andrology at Lexington, Ky suggested:
Nonsmoking men enjoy sex more and have sex twice as often as men who smoke heavily. Smoking appears to affect sexual behavior. Studies have linked cigarette smoking to fertility problems in men. Now, researchers suggest cigarette smoking may dampen some of the pleasure of sex for some men.

The study looked at 300 men between the ages of 24 and 36 and found that nonsmokers had sex 11.6 times a month, on average, compared to 5.7 times a month for smokers.

A study found that Cigarette smoking almost doubled the chances of developing moderate or complete erectile dysfunction.  Exposure to passive smoke also significantly increased the incidence of erectile dysfunction.

Smoking is a major factor in impotence.  It is also a turnoff to the opposite sex.

Tobacco use has been associated with premature aging and skin wrinkling.

Biotin

Biotin
Biotin is water-soluble and is required by all organisms. In human intestine, bacteria produce biotin.

Recommended daily intake: 30 µg

Biotin is present in the skin, hair, nerves and bone marrow.
Biotin deficiency rarely, if ever, occurs in healthy individuals who consume a regular diet. Almost all foods contain significant quantities of biotin, and many widely consumed foods are relatively rich in biotin. the intestinal flora synthesizes significant quantities of biotin. A significant fraction of the body’s biotin is recycled; that is, a given molecule of biotin may be repeatedly used before it is eventually lost from the body in the feces or urine.It can happen in those being treated either with certain anticonvulsants or with broad-spectrum antibiotics. Consuming raw egg white may cause biotin deficits. Avidin, a protein found in egg white, can bind biotin and prevent it being absorbed. Biotin-Avidin complex is not broken during the passage of food in the intestine and is lost in the feces.
Athletes often take biotin because they are most likely to experience a deficit. Anticonvulsants inhibit biotin absorption in the small intestine or increase urinary excretion of the vitamin. Biotin deficiency is relatively common in pregnant women, because excretion levels are higher. Pregnant women are advised to take addition biotin (at least 400 µg/ day).
Biotin deficiency causes skin, nail and hair loss. It may also result in weakness, depression, hallucination, numbness, fatigue, irritation, rashes, loss of appetite, and even depression.
Symptoms of Biotin deficiency first start with skin and hair.

  • Dry skin
  • Seborrheic dermatitis
  • Fungal infections
  • Rashes, including erythematous periorofacial macular rash
  • Fine and brittle hair
  • Hair loss or total alopecia

Approximately 1-2 weeks later, neurologic symptoms begin to develop.

  • Mild depression, Changes in mental status
  • Generalized muscular pains

Other symptoms

  • Nausea, Vomiting, Anorexia.
Biotin is found in various food stuffs in generally lower amounts than other water-soluble vitamins. Biotin containing food products include bread, brown rice, bran cereals, egg yolk, yeast, nuts, beans, peas, cauliflower, liver, kidney and fish. Biotin supplements may be recommended in case of skin, nail and hair loss.
     
     
     
 Nutrition

Recommended daily intake of vitamins and minerals

Recommended daily intake of vitamins and minerals

Vitamins Recommended daily intake


Over dosage (mg or µg/d)

Biotin
(B-complex)

30 µg  More on Biotin

Folate
(B-complex)

400 µg Doses larger than 400 µg may cause anaemia and may mask symptoms of a vitamin B12 deficiency
Vitamin A 600 µg Extremely high doses (>9000 mg) can cause dry, scaly skin, fatigue, nausea, loss of appetite, bone and joint pains and headaches

Vitamin B1 (thiamin)

1,4 mg No toxic effects resulting from high doses have been observed

Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)

1,6 mg Doses higher than 200 mg may cause urine colour alteration

Vitamin B3 (niacin)

18 mg Doses larger than 150 mg may cause problems ranging from facial flushing to liver disease

Vitamin B5 (patothenic acid)

6 mg  More on Vitamin B5 Dose should not exceed 1200 mg; this may cause nausea and heartburn

Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine)

2 mg  More on Vitamin B6 Doses larger than 100 mg may cause numbness and tingling in hands and feet

Vitamin B12 (cobalamine)

6 µg Doses larger than 3000 µg may cause eye conditions

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)

75 mg  More on Vitamin C No impacts of over dose have been proven so far

Vitamin D (cholecalciferol)

5 µg Large doses (>50 µg) obtained form food can cause eating problems and ultimately disorientation, coma and death

Vitamin E (tocopherol)

10 mg Doses larger than 1000 mg cause blood clotting, which results in increased likelihood of haemorrhage in some individuals
Vitamin K 80 µg  More on Vitamin K Large doses of one form of vitamin K (menadione or K3) may result in liver damage or anaemia
Minerals Recommended daily intake Over dosage
Boron < 20 mg
Calcium 1000 mg Doses larger than 1500 mg may cause stomach problems for sensitive individuals
Chlorine

3400 mg
(in chloride form)

Chromium 120 µg Doses larger than 200 µg are toxic and may cause concentration problems and fainting
Copper 2 mg As little as 10 mg of copper can have a toxic effect
Fluorine 3,5 mg
Iodine 150 µg
Iron 15 mg Doses larger than 20 mg may cause stomach upset, constipation and blackened stools
Magnesium 350 mg Doses larger than 400 mg may cause stomach problems and diarrhoea
Manganese 5 mg Excess manganese may hinder iron adsorption
Molybdenum 75 µg Doses larger than 200 µg may cause kidney problems and copper deficiencies
Nickel < 1 mg Products containing nickel may cause skin rash in case of allergies
Phosphorus 1000 mg Contradiction: the FDA states that doses larger than 250 mg may cause stomach problems for sensitive individuals
Potassium 3500 mg Large doses may cause stomach upsets, intestinal problems or heart rhythm disorder
Selenium 35 µg Doses larger than 200 µg can be toxic
Sodium 2400 mg
Vanadium < 1,8 mg
Zinc 15 mg Doses larger than 25 mg may cause anaemia and copper deficiency