|In vitro fertilization|
|A technique by which an ovum is fertilized with sperm in a laboratory dish and subsequently implanted in a uterus for gestation is known as in vitro fertilization..In the late 1970s the widely publicized use of in vitro fertilization (IVF) gave new hope to many women with defective Fallopian tubes; in IVF, an ovum taken from the woman’s body is fertilized by the man’s sperm in the laboratory and then returned to the woman’s uterus. Use of this method has been growing rapidly.Women have also been implanted with the ovum of another woman after it was fertilized by IVF or regular artificial insemination techniques. In the 1990s, IVF was used to enable women well past menopause to become pregnant, with an egg donated by a younger woman; through this method a 63-year old woman in the U.S. gave birth in 1996.In the practice known as surrogate mothering a second woman is inseminated with the sperm of a man whose wife is infertile, to bear a child for the couple.
Patrick Christopher. 1913–1988. British physician with physiologist Robert Edwards perfected in vitro fertilization of the human egg, resulting in the birth (July 25, 1978) of world’s first “test-tube baby.” Later credited with over a thousand such births.