Lipid Profile

INTRODUCTION

Hyperlipidaemia has emerged as one of the most important preventable and modifiable risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD). Clinical signs of this condition are an increase in the fasting serum cholesterol level (hypercholesterolaemia) or the fasting serum triglyceride level (hypertriglyceridaemia) or both. A meta- analysis of 16 randomised trials involving cholesterol-lowering interventions reported a 2.5% reduction in CHD incidence for every 1% cholesterol reduction. Lipid levels may be affected by diet, exercise, smoking, certain medications (e.g : beta blockers, thiazide diuretics, glueocorticoids) and concurrent disease states (e.g . kidney and liver diseases).

LIPIDS AND LIPOPROTEINS

The major plasma lipids include cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipids. Lipoproteins are macromolecular complexes that play an important role in the transport and metabolism of lipids. Lipoproteins have been classified on the basis of their densities into five major classes, chylomicrons, very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), intermediate density lipoproteins (IDL), low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and high-density lipoprotelm (HDLP).

LIPID CONCENTRATIONS AND CHD

Total cholesterol (TC) is a sum of HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and 20% of the triglyceride value. TC level is an excellent predictor of CHD. Since atheroselerosis begins early in life cholesterol levels in young adults predict CHD risk 30 to 40 years later. Cholesterol measurement will thus reduce the long-term risk for CHD.

•Although the role of high triglycerides as an independent factor in the development of CHD remains controversial, data from several prospective studies suggest that triglycerides are probably an important risk factor. Hypertriglyceridaemia is often associated with increased plasminogen activator inhibitor levels and impaired fibrinolysis. This is especially of importance in the Indian context since triglyceride levels are considered to be significantly elevated in Indians. However, recent data show that cholesterol levels are also significantly elevated in the Indian population.

The relation between VLDL and CHD is unclear at present. However, elevated VLDL levels occur quite commonly in persons afflicted by premature CHD. Moreover, VLDL gives rise to LDL, which has been undoubtedly proven to be atherogenic.

•LDL cholesterol is highly atherogenic, hence high levels of LDL increase the risk of CHD.
LDL = TC – (HDL + triglyceride/5)

•HDL cholesterol has been found to be inversely related to subsequent development of CHD, i.e. as HDL cholesterol increases, CHD risk decreases.

•Cardiac risk ratio i.e. Total cholesterol/ HDL, is an extremely potent predictor of CHD

•Lp (a), an LDL particle to which a large plasminogen-like protein, termed apo(a) has been linked via a disulfide bond is an atherogenic lipoprotein. There has been speculation that apo(a) could competitively inhibit the binding of plasminogen to its reeeptor and thus decrease plasmin formation and thrombolysis.

DIAGNOSIS

It is recommended that aduIts above 20 years shouid have total cholesterol and HDL measured at least once every five years.If these levels are abnormal, a lipoprotein analysis which measures 12 hours fasting total cholesterol, HDL and triglyceride is recommended. TC and LDL levels may be reduced by illness, inflammation, surgery and trauma. Hence, the measurements should be repeated after the illness has subsided. Patients at higher risk should be tested more often.

CONCLUSION

Effective control of the blood lipid levels reduced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality both in patients with established CHD and in those at risk of developing CHD. Hence knowledge of the various aspects of the lipid profile and the significance of each of the parameters is vital and is essential part of management of CHD and people at risk of CHD.

Drugs that reduce blood cholesterol levels also cut heart patients’ long-term risk of dying. Researchers now report that aggressive treatment to reduce blood fats (lipids) in patients with chest pain or those who have just had a heart attack can reduce their risk of dying by as much as 60%.

Lipid Profile Values

Advertisements
This entry was posted in Nutrition by Manbir & Gurpreet. Bookmark the permalink.

About Manbir & Gurpreet

Gurpreet Kaur’s journey in this world .... Gurpreet Kaur was a Musician. She was a singer and a composer of music. Her interest was composing and singing Gurbani Shabads in Indian Classical style. She sang Shabads in All the Raags mentioned in Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji. She also taught Gurmat Sangeet at Gurmat Gian Missionary College, Jawadi, Ludhiana. Elder child to Pushpinder Kaur and Dr. Brig. Harminder Singh, was born in Amritsar on 13th Jan 1962. She attended various convent schools as a child because her father would get frequent Army postings as a dental surgeon. She graduated with Music Honors from Govt. College for Women, Chandigarh. Music was her hobby and she composed and sang Raag based Gurbani Shabads. Doing Kirtan was part of growing up nurtured by her parents. She learned music from her father Dr. Brigadier Harminder Singh who was a dental surgeon in Indian Army and a very good singer himself. Gurpreet’s Bhua (father’s sister), Ajit Kaur retied as a Head of Department of Music from Govt. College for Women Ludhiana, and was a renounced Punjabi singer of her time. Gurpreet Kaur also learned nuances of Indian Classical Music from Pandita Sharma. She was a mother of three children, and a grandmother. Her daughter Keerat Kaur is a Computer Engineer. Her two sons Gurkeerat Singh and Jaskeerat Singh are doctors in USA. Her daughter Keerat Kaur too was part of her group ~ Gurmat Gian Group. Gurpreet Kaur left this world at the age of 54yrs on 12th Sept 2016 in Baltimore USA. She had recorded around 25 cds of Gurbani Keertan. 'Raag Ratan' Album (6 CDs) is a Compilation of Shabads in All the 31 Sudh Raags of Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji. 'Gauri Sagar' Album (3 CDs) is a Compilation of All forms of Raag Gauri in Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji. 'Nanak Ki Malhaar' ~ ((3 CDs) is an album of Raag Malhar Shabads in various forms of Malhar. 'Gur Parsaad Basant Bana' ~ (3 CDs) is an album of Shabads in Raag Basant sung in various forms of Raag Basant. Har Ki Vadeyai Sarni Aayea Sewa Priya Kee Preet Piyaree Mohan Ghar Aavho Karo Jodariya Mo Kao Taar Le Raama Taar Le Tere Kavan Kavan Gun Keh Keh Gawan Mera Baid Guru Govinda Saajanrraa Mera Saajanrraa

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s