Microcephaly is a rare, neurological disorder in which the circumference of the head is smaller than the average for the age and gender of the infant. Microcephaly may be congenital or it may develop in the first few years of life.

This disorder may be caused by a wide variety of conditions that effect the growth of brain. It is often associated with chromosomal abnormality.

Infants with microcephaly may be born with a normal or reduced head size. The head fails to grow while the face continues to develop at a normal rate, producing a child with a small head, a large face, and a loose, often wrinkled scalp. As the child grows the smallness of the head becomes more obvious. Whole body is also underdeveloped. Motor functions and speech are delayed. Motor ability may vary, and it may be clumsy movements or even quadriplegia (paralysis of both upper and lower limbs).Hyperactivity and mental retardation are common. Convulsions may also occur.

The is no specific treatment in such cases. Treatment is symptomatic and supportive. Life expectancy is low and the prognosis for normal brain function is poor.

The Causes of Microcephaly can be Genetic and Non genetic


  1. Autosomal Recessive (Familial)
  2.  Autosomal Dominant
  3.  Syndromes


  • Aicardi Syndrome
  • Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome
  • Bloom Syndrome
  • Cohen Syndrome
  • Cornelia de Lange
  • Cri-du-chat (5p-)
  • Dubowitz Syndrome
  • Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome
  • Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome
  • Trisomy 21
  • Trisomy 18
  • Trisomy 13
  • Xeroderma Pigmentosum

Non Genetic

1. Congenital CNS Anomalies

      • Agenesis of the Cerebellar Vermis
      • Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum
      • Craniosynostosis
      • Encephalocele
      • Holoprosencephaly
      • Lissencephaly
      • Macrogyria
      • Porencephaly
      • Schizencephaly

2. Congenital Infections

      • CMV
      • Rubella
      • Toxoplasmosis
      • Varicella

3. Drugs

      • Alcohol
      • Aminopterin
      • Dilantin
      • Methyl Mercury

4. Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy

5. Infections

      • Encephalitis
      • Meningitis

6. Metabolic

      • Maternal Diabetes Mellitus
      • Maternal PKU
      • Inborn Errors of Metabolism
      • Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinoses

7. Others

      • Radiation
      • Hyperthermia
This entry was posted in Diseases & Conditions and tagged by Manbir & Gurpreet. Bookmark the permalink.

About Manbir & Gurpreet

Gurpreet Kaur’s journey in this world .... Gurpreet Kaur was a Musician. She was a singer and a composer of music. Her interest was composing and singing Gurbani Shabads in Indian Classical style. She sang Shabads in All the Raags mentioned in Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji. She also taught Gurmat Sangeet at Gurmat Gian Missionary College, Jawadi, Ludhiana. Elder child to Pushpinder Kaur and Dr. Brig. Harminder Singh, was born in Amritsar on 13th Jan 1962. She attended various convent schools as a child because her father would get frequent Army postings as a dental surgeon. She graduated with Music Honors from Govt. College for Women, Chandigarh. Music was her hobby and she composed and sang Raag based Gurbani Shabads. Doing Kirtan was part of growing up nurtured by her parents. She learned music from her father Dr. Brigadier Harminder Singh who was a dental surgeon in Indian Army and a very good singer himself. Gurpreet’s Bhua (father’s sister), Ajit Kaur retied as a Head of Department of Music from Govt. College for Women Ludhiana, and was a renounced Punjabi singer of her time. Gurpreet Kaur also learned nuances of Indian Classical Music from Pandita Sharma. She was a mother of three children, and a grandmother. Her daughter Keerat Kaur is a Computer Engineer. Her two sons Gurkeerat Singh and Jaskeerat Singh are doctors in USA. Her daughter Keerat Kaur too was part of her group ~ Gurmat Gian Group. Gurpreet Kaur left this world at the age of 54yrs on 12th Sept 2016 in Baltimore USA. She had recorded around 25 cds of Gurbani Keertan. 'Raag Ratan' Album (6 CDs) is a Compilation of Shabads in All the 31 Sudh Raags of Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji. 'Gauri Sagar' Album (3 CDs) is a Compilation of All forms of Raag Gauri in Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji. 'Nanak Ki Malhaar' ~ ((3 CDs) is an album of Raag Malhar Shabads in various forms of Malhar. 'Gur Parsaad Basant Bana' ~ (3 CDs) is an album of Shabads in Raag Basant sung in various forms of Raag Basant. Har Ki Vadeyai Sarni Aayea Sewa Priya Kee Preet Piyaree Mohan Ghar Aavho Karo Jodariya Mo Kao Taar Le Raama Taar Le Tere Kavan Kavan Gun Keh Keh Gawan Mera Baid Guru Govinda Saajanrraa Mera Saajanrraa

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