The following conditions predispose to loss of bone and increased susceptibility to osteoporosis and consequent fractures.
Women with early menopause (40-45 years)
Younger women with ovarian hormone failure Or bilateral oophorectomy ( removal of Ovaries ) before normal menopause.
Women not receiving hormonal therapy for at least 5 years after menopause.
Patients after prolonged corticoid treatment of more than 3 months.
Strong family history of osteoporosis.
Men with hypogonadism.
Patients who have received chemotherapy, especially for breast cancers and haematological cancers.
Certain drugs enhance bone loss and render the patient susceptible to development of osteoporosis (e.g. corticoids, anti-convulsants, excessive doses of thyroid hormone, prolonged heparin therapy and anti-cancer drugs including high doses of methotrexate.
Low Calcium in diet.
Insufficient exposure to sunlight or not enough Vitamin D in diet.
White or Eurasian ancestry.
Caffeine (consistently more than three cups a day of coffee, tea, cola).
Alcohol (consistently more than two drinks a day).