Parkinson’s Disease – Genetic & Environmental etiology

Parkinson’s Disease – Genetic & Environmental etiology

Parkinson’s disease is likely to be a multifactor disorder involving a combination of environmental and genetics factors. The cause of PD is unknown. Various factors have been implicated in the etiology of the disease, such as infection, metabolic factors, free radicals, growth factors and toxins. Until recently research mainly focused on connection between this disorder and environmental factors such as viral infection and neurotoxins. In the last few years studies have shown linkage between genetic factors and movement disorders, because of this interest has shifted from environment to genome.

In 1997, a study funded by the National Institute of Health in the US reported that a family of Greek and Italian origin with a parkinsonian syndrome had an abnormal gene on chromosome 4 which produced a protien called alpha-synuclein. This family was atypical because of relatively young mean age of onset of 45 years and the rapid course of 10 years from the onset to death.

However, in over 200 familial cases of PD, studies by other groups, Parkinsonism was not linked to the abnormal gene on chromosome 4.

Work done by different groups have shown linkage of PD with other chromosomes 2 and 6. The demonstration of three different genes, on 3 different chromosomes, producing parkinsonism, shows that there are multiple causes even within genetic category. There are certainly multiple genetic causes but in all probability in majority of patients there are significant non-genetic causes.

It may be that there are several different environmental risk factors just as there are several different genes on several different chromosomes which establish the background of susceptibility to Parkinson’s disease. The liability to develop the disease will depend on what one might say the dose of environmental factor and the dose of genetic predisposition combined.

Parkinson’s Disease

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About Manbir & Gurpreet

Gurpreet Kaur’s journey in this world .... Gurpreet Kaur was a Musician. She was a singer and a composer of music. Her interest was composing and singing Gurbani Shabads in Indian Classical style. She sang Shabads in All the Raags mentioned in Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji. She also taught Gurmat Sangeet at Gurmat Gian Missionary College, Jawadi, Ludhiana. Elder child to Pushpinder Kaur and Dr. Brig. Harminder Singh, was born in Amritsar on 13th Jan 1962. She attended various convent schools as a child because her father would get frequent Army postings as a dental surgeon. She graduated with Music Honors from Govt. College for Women, Chandigarh. Music was her hobby and she composed and sang Raag based Gurbani Shabads. Doing Kirtan was part of growing up nurtured by her parents. She learned music from her father Dr. Brigadier Harminder Singh who was a dental surgeon in Indian Army and a very good singer himself. Gurpreet’s Bhua (father’s sister), Ajit Kaur retied as a Head of Department of Music from Govt. College for Women Ludhiana, and was a renounced Punjabi singer of her time. Gurpreet Kaur also learned nuances of Indian Classical Music from Pandita Sharma. She was a mother of three children, and a grandmother. Her daughter Keerat Kaur is a Computer Engineer. Her two sons Gurkeerat Singh and Jaskeerat Singh are doctors in USA. Her daughter Keerat Kaur too was part of her group ~ Gurmat Gian Group. Gurpreet Kaur left this world at the age of 54yrs on 12th Sept 2016 in Baltimore USA. She had recorded around 25 cds of Gurbani Keertan. 'Raag Ratan' Album (6 CDs) is a Compilation of Shabads in All the 31 Sudh Raags of Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji. 'Gauri Sagar' Album (3 CDs) is a Compilation of All forms of Raag Gauri in Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji. 'Nanak Ki Malhaar' ~ ((3 CDs) is an album of Raag Malhar Shabads in various forms of Malhar. 'Gur Parsaad Basant Bana' ~ (3 CDs) is an album of Shabads in Raag Basant sung in various forms of Raag Basant. Har Ki Vadeyai Sarni Aayea Sewa Priya Kee Preet Piyaree Mohan Ghar Aavho Karo Jodariya Mo Kao Taar Le Raama Taar Le Tere Kavan Kavan Gun Keh Keh Gawan Mera Baid Guru Govinda Saajanrraa Mera Saajanrraa

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